For body parts like knees and elbows to bend in a proper way, hinge connections should be used. A hinge connection acts as a pivot across which the limb would rotate. And for a hinge connection to work properly, the additional point controller should be placed on the bending axis.
To create a hinge connection:
- Enable the Orthogonal to joint fold option
- Create rig elements for the limb
- Select additional point controllers before and after the place where the limb should bend
- Click the Union to hinge button.
The additional points you have selected will be positioned in one place. When the actual rig is generated, Cascadeur will interpret this as a marker for a hinge connection and create a hinge there.
Cascadeur can also automatically create a Direction Controller for the hinge.
This is only possible if the hinge is orthogonal to the edge that connect the main controller with the main direction controller.
Right (left) and non-right (right) angles
If the hinge is not orthogonal to the limb, you can fix this by using the Ortho hinge button:
- Select both of the hinge controllers
- Click the Ortho hinge button
However, if the limbs of your characters are completely straight, the software would not be able to automatically calculate bending axes for them. In a case like this you’ll have to manually fold the limbs to the same degree.
To do this:
- Select the joints across the bending point.
- Go to the Settings panel and enable Fix angle on the Manipulators tab
- Set the number of degrees (5, for example)
- Bend the limb across the axis you need
- Select the same joints in the other limb and bend them as well
Hinges should be created for:
Creating a hinge connection also creates a direction controller for it. If you don't need it:
- Select the proto component associated with the limb for which you create a hinge
- In the Outliner window, open the Proto union behavior tab:
- On this tab, disable Create direction controller to hinge
- Now when you create a hinge connection for this joint, the program will not generate a direction controller for it